Готові роботи
ХАВВ, Варіант №9 (КР-4), Англійська мова, №3909

ХАВВ, Варіант №9 (КР-4), Англійська мова, №3909 (ID:22403)

РозділІноземна мова
Тип роботи контрольна
Рік виконання 2008
Кількість сторінок 14
Зміст Завдання № 1 Перепишіть та перекладіть письмово 1 абзац тексту. Diesel Engines 1. Theoretically, the diesel cycle differs from the Otto cycle in that combustion takes place at constant volume rather than at constant pressure. Most diesels are also four-stroke engines but they operate differently than the four-stroke Otto-cycle engines. The first, or suction, stroke draws air, but no fuel, into the combustion chamber through an intake valve. On the second, or compression, stroke the air is compressed to a small fraction of its former volume and is heated to approximately 440° C (approximately 820° F) by this compression. At the end of the compression stroke, vaporized fuel is injected into the combustion chamber and burns instantly because of the high temperature of the air in the chamber. Some diesels have auxiliary electrical ignition systems to ignite the fuel when the engine starts and until it warms up. This combustion drives the piston back on the third, or power, stroke of the cycle. The fourth stroke, as in the Otto-cycle engine, is an exhaust stroke. 2. The efficiency of the diesel engine, which is in general governed by the same factors that control the efficiency of Otto-cycle engines, is inherently greater than that of any Otto-cycle engine and in actual engines today is slightly more than 40 percent. Diesels are, in general, slow-speed engines with crankshaft speeds of 100 to 750 revolutions per minute (rpm) as compared to 2 500 to 5 000 rpm for typical Otto-cycle engines. Some types of diesel, however, have speeds up to 2000 rpm. Because diesels use compression ratios of 14 or more to 1, they are generally more heavily built than Otto-cycle engines, but this disadvantage is counterbalanced by their greater efficiency and the fact that they can be operated on less expensive fuel oils. Завдання № 2 Перепишіть питання та дайте на них письмові відповіді. 1. What is the efficiency of the diesel engine? 2. Why is a diesel engine considered to be slow-speed? 3. Which engine, diesel or Otto-cycle, is heavy? 4. What oil and fuel is used in a diesel engine? 5. What disadvantage of a diesel engine is mentioned in the text? Завдання № 3 Закінчить та перепишіть надані речення. Перекладіть їх на рідну мову. 1. The crankshaft speed of a diesel engine is of 100 to 750 revolutions per minute (rpm). 2. Diesel engines can operate differently than the four-stroke Otto-cycle engines. 3. Otto-cycle engines are four stroke engines. 4. There is an auxiliary electrical ignition system to ignite the fuel when the engine starts and until it warms up. 5. The difference between a diesel and Otto-cycle engines is in operation. Завдання № 4 Знайдіть англійські еквіваленти до поданих с слів та словосполучень. Доля, частина Порівнювати Такт Вприскувати Постійний, рівний Відрізнятися Допоміжний Розігріти Оберт Впуск Завдання № 5 Знайдіть в тексті п'ять речень у пасивному стані (Passive Voice), випишіть їх та перекладіть письмово. 1. At the end of the compression stroke, vaporized fuel is injected into the combustion chamber and burns instantly because of the high temperature of the air in the chamber. 2. The efficiency of the diesel engine, which is in general governed by the same factors that control the efficiency of Otto-cycle engines, is inherently greater than that of any Otto-cycle engine and in actual engines today is slightly more than 40 percent. 3. Because diesels use compression ratios of 14 or more to 1, they are generally more heavily built than Otto-cycle engines, but this disadvantage is counterbalanced by their greater efficiency and the fact that they can be operated on less expensive fuel oils. 4. …they can be operated on less expensive full oils. 5. On the second, or compression, stroke the air is compressed to a small fraction of its former volume and is heated to approximately 440° C (approximately 820° F) by this compression. Завдання № 6 Перепишіть та письмово перекладіть речення. Визначте який прикметник або дієприкметник (Participle І або Participle II) вжито в реченні, підкресліть його. Example: Corroded wires do not provide electricity. (Participle II). Іржавий дріт не проводить електричний струм. 1. If you smell a burning (Participle І) odor, it could be gasoline, stop the car and look for gas leaking around the engine, fuel pump, and fuel line. 2. Check your tire pressure monthly, keeping (Participle І) tires inflated to the maximum recommended pressure written on the side of tire. 3. With all the fear associated with the potential (прикметник) rusting of your car, you might think you should get your car rust-proofed. 4. Emergency Services should get detailed (прикметник) information about the accident. 5. A man was hit by an approaching (Participle І) car. Завдання № 7 За зразком зробить нові речення з ,,used to", що вказують на те, якими були різні речі або явища у минулому. Запишіть обидва речення та перекладіть їх письмово. Examples: 1.This town is so ugly. It used to be so pretty. Це місто таке некрасиве. Раніш воно було таким гарним. 2. There are so many tourists now. There didn't use to be any tourists. Зараз дуже багато туристів. Раніш тут зовсім не було туристів. 1. She does not smoke now. 2. Now a lot of people drive their private cars. 3. There is no any service station in this district. 4. I always give a lift to everyone who needs. 5. She does not listen to music while driving. Завдання № 8 Перепишіть та письмово перекладіть речення з умовним способом (Subjunctive Mood). 1. І wish you drove more carefully. 2. If there wasn't so much traffic the atmosphere would be less polluted. 3. It's a pity you can't drive! It would be useful if you could. 4. If there wasn't hard traffic I wouldn't be late for the briefing. 5. Means of safety would not have found if accident researches had not been kept. Завдання № 9 Переробить речення з прямою мовою в речення з непрямою мовою. Перепишіть та письмово перекладіть перероблені речення. 1. A sergeant picked up the receiver and said, "Sergeant Smith speaking." 2. The commander ordered, "All the vehicles in the convoy will come under my command when we reach the start point." 3. I answered the police officer, "A white car made a fast stop to miss a boy on the bike." 4. A friend of mine told me, "I would like to rent a car for a week." 5. During the briefing the instructor said, "If there are any injured persons, give first aid and call for the medical support." Завдання № 10 Перепишіть та письмово перекладіть речення. Задайте питання до підкреслених слів в реченнях, починаючи з наданого в дужках питального слова, запишіть питання та письмово перекладіть їх. 1. The driver has to follow special rules of parking and safeguarding his vehicle. 2. Standing orders for Drivers are there for their guidance. 3. Normally the military driver has to park on Military Defense property. 4. The driver is responsible for the correct recording and accounting for the fuel. 5. Cars are symbols of freedom, wealth, and masculinity. Література
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